Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other, is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system. As chemotherapy it is used to treat lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma, and sarcoma. As an immune suppressor it is used in nephrotic syndrome and following organ transplant. It is taken by mouth or injection into a vein.
Most people develop side effects. Common side effects include low white blood cell counts, loss of appetite, vomiting, hair loss, and bleeding from the bladder. Other severe side effects include an increased future risk of cancer, infertility, allergic reactions, and pulmonary fibrosis. Cyclophosphamide is in the alkylating agent and nitrogen mustard family of medications. It works by interfering with the duplication of DNA and the creation of RNA.
Cyclophosphamide was approved for medical use in the United States in 1959. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 3.65 to 14.30 USD per 1 g vial. In the United Kingdom this dose costs the NHS about 17.06 pounds. In the United States this dose by mouth is about 19.56 USD.
Cyclophosphamide is used to treat cancers and autoimmune diseases. It is used to quickly control the disease. Because of its toxicity, it is replaced as soon as possible by less toxic drugs. Regular and frequent laboratory evaluations are required to monitor kidney function, avoid drug-induced bladder complications and screen for bone marrow toxicity.
It is used in medicine for treating certain cancers of the Islets of Langerhans and used in medical research to produce an animal model for Type 1 diabetes in a large dose as well as Type 2 diabetes with multiple low doses