Adalimumab, sold under the trade name Humira among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, chronic psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. In rheumatoid arthritis, adalimumab has a response rate similar to methotrexate, and in combination, it nearly doubles the response rate of methotrexate alone.
Adalimumab is a TNF-inhibiting, anti-inflammatory, biologic medication. It binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFÎ±), which normally binds to TNFÎ± receptors, leading to the inflammatory response of autoimmune diseases. By binding to TNFÎ±, adalimumab reduces this inflammatory response. Because TNFÎ± is also part of the immune system, which protects the body from infection, treatment with adalimumab may increase the risk of infections.
Humira costs approximately $3,100 per month, like the TNFÎ± inhibitor etanercept. From 2012 to US patent expiry in 2016, Humira led the list of top-selling pharmaceutical products, and in 2016, it had $16 billion of global sales. Also in 2014, in India, the first adalimumab biosimilar came to market at a price of $200. Two years later, another Indian drugmaker, Torrent Pharmaceuticals, launched a second biosimilar. Humira's U.S. patent expired in 2016.